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Investigate Islam – arabic  المقالات مكتبة طريق الخلاص لاهوتيات نصرانيات

Morals in the Life and Da‘wah of the Prophets

The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was commanded to maintain the same methodology that had been adopted by all the previous prophets and messengers, may Allaah exalt their mention, as Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {Those are the ones whom Allaah has guided, so from their guidance take an example.} [Quran 6:90] Allaah the Almighty granted the prophets perfection of morals and character so that people would not turn away from them with the excuse that they were repulsive or ill-natured. All prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, only spoke what was revealed to them by Allaah the Almighty. Their message was not something that they fabricated or that was due to the surrounding social conditions of their age. Their message was a revelation from Allaah the Almighty, as each and every prophet testified: {I only follow what is revealed to me.}[Quran 6:50] The prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, did not have the right to change, replace, add, or cancel anything that had been revealed to them. Concerning Prophet Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), Allaah the Almighty Says (what means):

·        {Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed.} [Quran 53:3,4]

·        {Say, [O Muhammad]: “It is not for me to change it on my own accord. I only follow what is revealed to me. Indeed, I fear, if I should disobey my Lord, the punishment of a tremendous Day.”} [Quran 10:15]

 
In their mission, the prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, did not ask for a reward from their people, as they only sought the reward of Allaah the Almighty. Prophet Hoode  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention said to his people (what means): {O my people, I do not ask you for it any reward. My reward is only from The One who created me. Then will you not reason?}[Quran 11:51] Prophet Muhammad,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), confirmed the same meaning by saying (what means): {Say, [O Muhammad]: “I do not ask you for the Quran any payment, and I am not of the pretentious.”} [Quran 38:86]
 
The aim of all the prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, was for people to have sincerity in religion and to turn them towards worshipping the Lord of all creation instead of worshipping His creatures. The prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, also aimed at saving disobedient people from the adversity of life to the comfort of both the worldly life and the Hereafter and from the oppression of distorted and false religions to the justice of Islam. In the Quran, Allaah the Almighty clarifies the true religion that He commands all people to follow, by Saying (what means): {And they were not commanded except to worship Allaah, [being] sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth, and to establish prayer and to give Zakaah. And that is the correct religion.} [Quran 98:5]
 
Every prophet was sent speaking the language of his people in order to communicate clearly with them. The prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, followed their Fitrah (innate disposition) and talked to people in a way that suited their mentality without pretense, declamation or exaggeration. Allaah the Almighty Says (what means):
·        {And I am not of the pretentious} [Quran 38:86]
Allaah the Almighty made the method of Da’wah (propagation) clear to His prophets, as He gave an order to His Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), by Saying (what means):
·        {Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most Knowing of who is [rightly] guided.}[Quran 16:125]
The methodology of the prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, and their Da‘wah are clear. The best way to make Da‘wah is the clear and simple way of the noble Quran, with which one does not need any philosophical or scholastic methodology.
 
All the prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, gave precedence to the eternal life of the Hereafter over the worldly life that would ultimately come to an end. Their predominant characteristic was to renounce the pleasures of this worldly life and seek the reward of the Hereafter, as they were certain that: {what is with Allaah is better and more lasting} [Quran 28:60] and: {that which is with Allaah is best for the righteous.} [Quran 3:198]
 
Allaah the Almighty Says to His Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), (what means): {And do not extend your eyes toward that by which We have given enjoyment to [some] categories of them, [its being but] the splendor of worldly life by which We test them. And the provision of your Lord is better and more enduring.} [Quran 20:131]
 
The prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, were the most perfect, most honest and had the noblest lineage of all mankind. Allaah the Almighty chose them by his Knowledge over everyone and everything else to bear the greatest trust, which is conveying His message. Therefore, they must be a model for all people. Regarding the merits of the prophets, Allaah the Almighty Says (what means):
·       {And remember Our servants, Ibraaheem, Ishaaq and Ya‘qoob – those of strength and [religious] vision. Indeed, We chose them for an exclusive quality: remembrance of the home [of the Hereafter]. And indeed they are, to Us, among the chosen and outstanding. And remember Ismaa‘eel, Al-Yas‘ and Dhul-Kifl, and all are among the outstanding.} [Quran 38:45-48]
·       {[Allaah] Said: “O Moosa, I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words [to you]. So take what I have given you and be among the grateful.”}[Quran 7:144]
 
Throughout their Da‘wah, the prophets, may Allaah exalt their mention, not only confirmed the idea of servitude to Allaah by telling their people (what means): {worship Allaah; you have no deity other than Him} [Quran 7:59] but they also treated the faults that were widespread during their time and urged their people to be virtuous. For instance, Prophet Shu‘ayb  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention tried to reform the faults of his people, the people of Madyan, and advised them not to give less in measure and weight and decrease the rights of others. Also, Prophet Loote  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention said to his people: {“Do you approach males among the worlds. And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing.”} [Quran 26:165-166] He also criticized them for obstructing roads and committing every evil in their meetings. The biography of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), also proves that he continuously tried to treat the faults of his people, as will be clarified later.
 
Adhering to Tawheed and Legislation: A Shield for Morality
 
1- Adhering to Tawheed (monotheism): Tawheed is purity as it is acknowledgement of the truth, while Shirk (polytheism) is an impurity as Allaah the Almighty Says (what means): {indeed the polytheists are unclean.}[Quran 9:28]This is because Shirk is the denial of truth, and even if the polytheists superficially bathed, adorned and perfumed themselves their inner impurity would still not be removed. Sins and evil deeds are considered impurities, as the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “Whoever commits any of these sins should conceal them and make use of the concealment granted to him by Allaah. Whoever openly admits to his sins [to other people] will be punished with what is prescribed in the Quran.”
 
In order to perfect morality and obtain the desired objectives, we should be careful in matters pertaining to Tawheed and legislation and follow the Sunnah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), in this regard. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), implanted two crucial principles in his Companions: the first was to worship Allaah the Almighty without associating any other deity with Him, while the second principle was to worship Allaah the Almighty according to His Legislation and no other. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), did not allow any of his Companions to break either of these two principles. Once the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), saw ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him holding a piece of paper from the Torah as he had admired what was written on it. Thereupon, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was very angry and said to him: “You do this while I am amongst you? I have conveyed to you the message white and pure. By Allaah, if Moosa [Moses] had been alive now, he would have had no choice but to follow me.”[Ahmad, Al-Albaani – Hasan] This Hadeeth shows the universal nature of the Da‘wah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and that it is impermissible to follow anything except the Quran and Sunnah. Therefore, how can people leave these protected principles and seek guidance in things that have been distorted and changed?
 
Once, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), heard an Imaam delivering a Khutbah (sermon) on the pulpit, and saying,“Whoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger will be rightly guided, while whoever disobeys them, will be misguided.”The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said:“What a bad Imaam you are! Say: ‘The one who disobeys Allaah and His Messenger will be misguided’.”[Ahmad, Muslim] In the abovementioned Hadeeth, the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), criticized the Imaam for saying “disobeying them” when referring to Allaah and His Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), as the use of this pronoun entails that both Allaah the Almighty and His Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), are on the same level. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), also saw that it was appropriate to mention and clarify this point in during the Khutbah.
 
When ‘Uthmaan ibn Math‘oon  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him died, Umm Al-‘Alaa’  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  her said,“O Abu As-Saa’ib! I testify that Allaah has honored you.”The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said to her:“How do you know that Allaah has honored Him?”She replied, “Who would be honored if not him?” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said to her:“By Allaah, though I am the Messenger of Allaah, I do not know what Allaah will do with me tomorrow.” Umm Al-‘Alaa’  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  her said,“By Allaah, I will never attest the piety of anybody after this.” [Ahmad and Al-Bukhaari]
 
Deeds depend on how the last of them will be, which Allaah the Almighty has concealed from people’s knowledge. This refutes what was said by the Jews and Christians as they said (what means):
·        {We are the children of Allaah and His beloved} [Quran 5:18]
·        {None will enter Paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian.} [Quran 2:111]
 
Allaah the Almighty told them (what means): {That is [merely] their wishful thinking, Say: “Produce your proof, if you should be truthful.”}[Quran 2:111] This also refutes what some people do, thinking that some of the dead are the allies of Allaah The Almighty and consequently, they worship these ‘allies’.
Among the examples that illustrate adherence to Tawheed is when a man came to the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and said to him, “Allaah and you willing.” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said:“Are you making me an equal to Allaah? You should say, ‘What Allaah alone, wills.”[Ahmad, Al-Albaani – Hasan]

Adhering to Tawheed (Islamic monotheism) does not only apply to deeds but also to words. Some of the Companions  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  them asked the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), to make a tree for them that was known as “Thaat Anwaat”  so that they could hang their weapons on it in order to seek its blessings as the disbelievers used to do. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), responded:“By Allaah, you have said to me the same as the Children of Israel said to Moosa; they said:{O Moosa make for us a god just as they have gods}. [Ahmad and At-Tirmithi – Hasan Saheeh]  

The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was asked about soothsayers, and he said:They know nothing.” [Muslim] Even if soothsayers tell the truth once, they add to it a hundred lies.
 
The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), warned us many times about using graves as Masjids (mosques). Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [He Revealed] that the masjids are for Allaah, so do not invoke with Allaah anyone.}[Quran 72:18] Therefore, it is the duty of all people to return in repentance to Allaah The Almighty, submit themselves to Him, abandon any form of Shirk, Kufr (disbelief) or devoting any acts of worship to anything other than Allaah and to believe in Him Alone. People must also know that Tawheed comes first, as one must give precedence to what is most important, whether in matters concerning seeking knowledge, work or Da‘wah.
 
The claims that the disbelievers, polytheists and philosophers have set the measures and foundations for good morals and that they have good manners is vain, as what is bred in the bone will come out in the flesh. Also, those disbelievers and polytheists will only benefit from their good deeds in this worldly life, but in the Hereafter they would embody the verse (what means):
·       {And We will regard what they have done of deeds and make them as dust dispersed.}[Quran 25:23]
·       {But those who disbelieved – their deeds are like a mirage in a lowland which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing but finds Allaah before Him, and He will pay him in full his due; and Allaah is swift in account.} [Quran 24:39]
 
2- Adhering to Legislation: All ways are blocked except that of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and it is not permissible, or indeed possible, to become firmly established with good morals first, then try to interpret Islamic texts in a way that would suit these morals. Allaah the Almighty Says (what means): {O you who have believed, do not put [yourselves] before Allaah and His Messenger, but fear Allaah.} [Quran 49:1] In fact, we are required to derive our methodology, principles, and morals from the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), without permitting ourselves or others to neglect any of the Sharee’ah texts. In this regard, we have to follow the example of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), where we have many proofs. The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), saw a man walking during pilgrimage supported by two men, so he asked about him. The people informed him that he had vowed to go on foot to perform pilgrimage. He said:“Allaah is not in need of this old man’s torturing himself.” Then he told the people: “Order him to ride.”[Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
 
Also, when the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), saw Abu Israel  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him standing in the sun and not speaking, he asked the people about him. They said, “He has vowed that on this day he will keep standing, remain in the sun and keep silent.”’The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said:“Let him end his fast, speak, come in the shade and sit down.” [Al-Bukhaari] Sitting in the sun is a burden that does not bring the person closer to Allaah the Almighty, and abstaining from speaking is how the previous nations used to fast, which is not a part of our Sharee‘ah. The proof of this is what the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “The one who believes in Allaah and the Day of Judgment should say something good or remain silent.” 
Further proof is that when the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), knew that ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him was fasting during the daytime and performing voluntary prayers throughout the night, which made him neglect the rights of his wife, he said to him:“Fast like my brother, Daawood, [Prophet David  may  Allaah  exalt  his  mention], who would fast every other day and never fled from his enemies.”[Muslim] It was also narrated that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “Your Lord has a right over you, and your wife has a right over you, so give each one his right.” [Al-Bukhaari]
 
Thus, a person must be just, moderate and careful regarding the different benefits in life and should maintain a good balance between them, without excessiveness or negligence. One must also take the requirements of the body and soul into consideration, without aloofness or committing excess, and should have a comprehensive view of giving every person his due right.
 
Another example is when three men went to the houses of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), asking about his acts of worship. When they were informed about it, it seemed as if they thought it was insufficient. Therefore, they said, “How can we compare ourselves to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) when his past and future sins have been forgiven.”Thereupon, one of them said, “I will offer voluntary prayers throughout the night and never sleep.”Another said, “I will fast throughout the year and will not break my fast.”The third said,“I will keep away from women and will never marry.” When the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), was told about them, he mounted the pulpit and gathered the people, then he said:“Why are some people saying such and such? I am the most knowledgeable and most fearful of Allaah among you, yet I fast and break my fast, I offer voluntary night prayers and I sleep, and I marry women. Therefore, the one who does not follow my Sunnah, is not of my Ummah.” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
 
The path that leads to Allaah the Almighty and the Gardens of Pleasure is the way of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), that should not be exceeded. This way should be followed without innovations as the most perfect human is the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), and his Sunnah is the praised way that was followed by his Companions  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  them. The Sunnah is every thing that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), did, said or approved of. It also includes any characteristic that was intended as a means of legislation for the Ummah. The one who turns away from the Sunnah of the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), should be told as the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “The one who refrains from my Sunnah, is not of my Ummah.” The Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), would say: “If someone innovates something that is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] It was narrated that the Prophet,  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ), said: “Every innovation is deviation, and every deviation is in Hell.”
 
According to Ash-Shaatibi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him an innovation is an invented way in the religion that is falsely attributed to the Sharee‘ah, even though it is done with the intention of worshipping Allaah The Almighty. Innovations are more preferable to Iblees (Satan) than sins, and the one who does them is among those to whom the evil of their deeds has been made attractive, so he considers them good. ‘Umar  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him would say, “Every innovation is a deviation, even if people consider it to be good.” Ibn Mas‘ood  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him would say, “Follow and do not innovate as you have what suffices you. Adhere to the way of the early generations [the Companions of the Prophet].”
 
 
The Companions  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  them followed this clear methodology and did not allow any one to ruin Tawheed or Legislation. ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him for instance, would kiss the Black Stone and say, “By Allaah, I know that you are just a stone that can neither harm nor benefit, and I would have never kissed you if I had not seen the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) kissing you.” ‘Ali  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him dismissed all the people from the mosque who would tell imaginary and unreal stories under the pretext of reminding the people and softening their hearts. Also, when Ibn ‘Umar  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him heard a man saying after sneezing, “Praise be to Allaah and peace and blessing be upon the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) he told him, “This is not what the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) taught us. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said:‘When anyone of you sneezes, he should praise Allaah’ but he did not mention that we should ask for blessings upon him.”
 
When Ibn Mas‘ood  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him entered the mosque of Al-Koofah, he saw groups of people sitting in circles and in the middle of each circle there was a pile of stones and a man standing by each group ordering them to exalt Allaah The Almighty a hundred times, then to praise Him a hundred times, and then to glorify Him a hundred times, and the people responded. Ibn Mas‘ood  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said to them, “O people! By Allaah you are either more guided than the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) or you are approaching a deviation!” They said, “O Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmaan! We only meant to do good deeds. He said, “There are many who want to do good deeds but never do [as they do not follow the Sunnah of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention )].” [Ad-Daarimi]
 
Any addition or deletion in acts of worship or behavior that is done with the intention of drawing closer to Allaah The Almighty, is a rejected innovation even if the intention was good as long as this act does not coincide with the Sharee‘ah of Allaah The Almighty.

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