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Posts Tagged ‘Human’

Rights of minorities in Islamic civilization

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Introduction

Rights of minoritiesUnder the Islamic law, non-Muslim minorities received rights and privileges that other minorities did not have under any other law in any other country. The relationship between the Muslim community and the non-Muslim minority is based on Allah’s rule that says: {Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just.} [Al-Mumtahanah: 9].

This verse has identified the ethical and legal basis, with which Muslims must treat non-Muslims, namely kindness and justice with all those who do not have enmity against them. The humanity did not know these rules before Islam. It lived for centuries after Islam, but suffered the horrors of lacking them. It still looks forward to the day when it can apply these rules in modern societies but to no avail due to passion, fanaticism and racism.

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Freedom of ownership between Communism and Capitalism

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany


 

The ancient and modern world was bewildered in the issue of ownership or property[1]. Different schools of thought and ideas were made in this regard. Communism, for example, wasted individual’s value and freedom as no one has the right to possess a land, factory or real estate or any other means of production. S/he should work as wager for the state, which owns and possesses the resources of production and makes it impossible for him or her to have capital even if this capital is halal (lawful).

Capitalism was also there. It is based on making as holy private ownership without putting any restrictions. It gives the individual the right to possess what he wants, develop it or spend it the way he wants without any slightest restrictions on means of his ownership, development or spending and without any rights to the society in this regard.

Islam, freedom of ownership

And between the extremism of Capitalism in exaggerating the importance of private ownership and the extremism of Communism in scrapping this ownership, including the disadvantages of the two systems, Islam shows us the moderate way that combines both private and collective ownership. Islam has permitted private ownership with certain restrictions to protect others. It also prohibited right of ownership in certain cases to take care of people and encouraged collective ownership. This means that Islam has endorsed individual’s right to ownership and right of collective ownership in a balanced and moderate way.

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Women’s rights in Islamic civilization

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Islamstory

Introduction

Islam provided woman with care and attention, elevated her status, and provided her with honor and good treatment whether she is a daughter, wife, sister or mother. Islam stated that both women and men were created out of one origin. Therefore, women and men are equal in humanity. Allah (be He Exalted) says: {O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women.} [Al-Nisa’: 1]. Many other verses show that Islam eradicated the principle of distinction between men and women in the common value of humanity.

 

Status of woman in Islam

Women's rights in Islamic civilizationRecalling these principles and disapproving the habits of Jahiliyah and previous nations with regard to the status of woman, Islam came to defend woman and place her in a status which she could not reach in old or later nations. Fourteen centuries ago, Islam prescribed for woman – as a mother, sister, wife and daughter – rights which western woman is still struggling to get but in vain!

Islam stated that women and men are equal in status and prestige, and that nothing detracts women because they are women. In this regard, the Prophet (peace be upon him) established an important rule when he said: “Women are counterpart of men”[1]. He (peace be upon him) always urged Muslims to take care of women. He told his companions: “I urge you to take care of women.” [2] He repeated this advice during his farewell pilgrimage when he addressed thousands of people of his nation.

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Solidarity in the Muslim Community

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Introduction

Solidarity in the Muslim CommunityThe Islamic Sharia enjoins its followers to maintain cooperation, solidarity and unity of feelings and emotions among them, in addition to their solidarity in the needs and materialistic matters. Therefore, they became like the solid cemented structure whose parts enforce each other. Narrated by Abu Musa al Ash’ari, the Prophet (PBUH) says: “A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.”[1], or like the one body in which if any part is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness and fever with it. The Prophet says: “You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it.”[2]

 

Comprehensiveness of Solidarity in Islam

Social solidarity in Islam does not merely stop at the material benefit, which is one of solidarity’s main aspects, but covers all the needs of the society; individuals and groups, whether these needs are material, moral or intellectual, and in the widest scope of these concepts. This means solidarity involves all the basic rights of individuals and groups in the nation.

 

All the teachings of Islam affirm the comprehensive nature of solidarity among Muslims. That is why the Muslim community is stranger to individualism, selfishness and negativism. The Muslim community, rather, lives on faithful brotherhood, generosity and helping one another in righteousness and piety all the time.[3]

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Islamic civilization’s care for freedom of thinking

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Thinking is an obligation of AllahIslam has enshrined the freedom of thought and cared for it. The Islamic civilization stands as witness for this. This was clear as Islam has called for thinking and making as functional the powers of reason in thinking about the whole universe with its skies and earth. Islam urged all the people to do this and God Almighty said: “Say: “I do admonish you on one point: that ye do stand up before Allah,- (It may be) in pairs, or (it may be) singly,- and reflect.” [Saba: 46] and also: “Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn to hear? Truly it is not their eyes that are blind, but their hearts which are in their breasts.” [Pilgrimage: 46]

Islam urges use of mental faculties, proofs

Islam has blamed those who block their sensual and mental faculties from functioning and put them in a rank lower than beasts. God Almighty says: “They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle,- nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning).” [The Heights: 179]

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Treatiesbetween Muslims and non-Muslims

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Introduction

Peace was the basis of Muslims’ treaties with the other. Through such treaties the two sides – Muslims and the other – live in a state of peace, conclusion of truce or reconciliation.

“As long as relations are based on peace, any treaties are either aimed at ending an accidental war and returning to the state of lasting peace or meant to recognize peace and establish its pillars in order to rule out any possible assault; otherwise it is caused by a breach of such treaties.”[1]

Throughout long eras, Islamic countries signed treaties and made covenants with non-Muslim countries. Such agreements included several commitments, rules, conditions and principles, which constitutes a development in the Islamic international law.

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Human rights in Islamic civilization

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Islamstory

Introduction

Human rightsWestern philosopher Nietzsche says: “The weak and failures should perish: first principle of our love of humanity. And they should be helped to do this”[1]!

But the philosophy of Islam and its law have never deviated from the values and ethics, which were represented in a set of rights that included all human beings without distinction between colors, races or languages, and also included the human behavior in dealing with each other. These values and ethics were also represented in maintaining and applying these rights with the authority of Islamic law and imposing sanctions upon offenders.

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Freedom of belief in Islam

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Freedom of belief is one of the basics of Islam

In a clear and basic rule about the religious freedom and the freedom of expression in Islam, God Almighty says: “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error.” [Al-Baqara: 256]. The Prophet (PBUH) and the Muslims after him did not order anyone to compulsorily embrace Islam. Neither did they force people to look like Muslims to escape death or torture. How can they do this and they well know that if someone accepts Islam under duress, his Islam becomes valueless in the Doomsday, which every Muslim seeks to realize.

It was mentioned in the reasons behind the revelation of the aforementioned verse: Ibn Abbas said: “The women of the Helpers whose boys always died in infancy used to vow to bring up their boys as Jews if they were to live. When the Banu’l-Nadir were driven out, they had among them children of the Helpers. The Helpers said: ‘We will not leave our children!’ Upon which Allah, exalted is He, revealed: “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error.” [1]

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Freedom of slaves emancipation in Islam

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Written by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Introduction

Islam came to regain dignity for humanity regardless of their race and color. Islam made all human beings equal and made the principle of Taqwa (Piety) the only basis by which people are considered superior to others. The Prophet (PBUH) destroyed after the conquest of Mecca all color and race differences and totally finished off racial discrimination when he asked Bilal Ibn Rabah to ascend to the top of Kaaba to chant the word of monotheism. Even before this incident, the Prophet (PBUH) made as brothers his uncle Hamza and his slave Zayd.

Hajjat al-Wadaa, principle of equality

In Hajjat al-Wadaa (the farewell pilgrimage), the Prophet (PBUH) declared the principle of equality when he said: “All mankind is from Adam and Adam is from dust. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab. A black person has no superiority over a red person nor does a red person have any superiority over a black person, except by piety.”[1] And from here came the call for freedom and finishing off slavery.

The origin in Islam is that all people are born free and not slaves and that is because they all belong to one father and were all born as free. Islam came to recognize this right at a time when people were enslaved and shown all sorts of humiliation and slavery.

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The Rights of Freedom and Justice in Islam

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

The concept of the right to justice is mentioned repeatedly in the Qur’an. There is quite a lot of detail in the passages relating to the freedom to justice. In Islam there are two concepts which are considered, Ihsan and Adl. While Adl is typical of monotheistic religions, referring to the need for balance and equality when judging and individual, in Islam perhaps the more important term is Ihsan. Ihsan refers to making up an imbalance or an injustice by returning or giving back something to the person that is at disadvantage. As such, it is not only important to treat all people equally, but to allow those that are at an objective disadvantage a compensation. These relate to the two most basic attributes of God, mercy and compassion (Al-Rahman and Al-Rahim.) These two concepts are often compared to the love of a mother to her offspring. A parent must love equally all of his offspring, but if one of them has a handicap or requires special attention Ihsan dictates that a loving parent will give that child more to help him make his way in life. In the ideal Islamic society, the concept of justice necessarily reflects helping the disadvantaged, like widows, orphans, and those living with handicaps or in poverty.

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